journal article

Process parameter assessment on the dissimilar deposition of AA2024-T351 on AA7475-T761 by Friction Surfacing


Friction surfacing as a solid-state deposition process allows the joining of materials with different chemical and physical properties at temperatures below their respective melting points. This experimental work focuses on generating sound, defect-free metallurgical joints between single friction surfacing deposits and substrate surfaces from dissimilar Al alloys of the 2xxx and 7xxx series. In this context, the influence of axial force and deposition speed on surface morphology and deposit geometry of the two heat-treatable Al alloys AA7475 as substrate and AA2024 as deposit are investigated. Process parameter variation shows that an increase in axial force from 8 to 12 kN, in conjunction with a deposition speed of 8 mm/s, leads to smooth surface morphology and consistent deposit width along its length. The AA2024 deposits consist of fine-grained microstructure with higher hardness at the top and lower hardness at the deposit-substrate interface. The joining mechanism is by interdiffusion, with a 7.5 μm thick diffusion zone across the dissimilar interface. Three-point bending tests reveal excellent bonding in the lateral surface of the advancing side due to the absence of delamination for all conditions tested. Minor delamination appears predominantly on the retreating side region for process parameter sets with low axial force. Tensile test results reveal that the AA2024 deposit on the AA7475 substrate presents an ultimate tensile strength equivalent to the AA7475-T651 base material and an increase of 37 % in ductility.
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