AbstractRefill Friction Stir Spot Welding (refill FSSW) is an innovative solid-state welding technique that has been successfully applied to various combinations of metallic materials. The objective of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of refill FSSW for polymer–polymer structures, with a specific emphasis on carbon-fiber-reinforced polyphenylene sulfide (CF-PPS). The influence of the key joining parameters, i.e. force, plunge depth, rotational speed, and tool diameter, has been analyzed in terms of the resulting joint microstructure, mechanical strength, and failure mechanisms. The lap shear tests revealed two primary failure modes: interfacial shear failure and nugget pull-out. Fracture surfaces exhibited broken fibers. The depth of the joint was found to play a crucial role in determining the failure mode, with interfacial shear failure resulting in higher lap shear strength. Thermal analyses conducted on the produced joints showed no evidence of thermal degradation, which aligns with the temperature measurements during the process, as they remained below the melting temperature of CF-PPS.