AbstractLaser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced surface enhancement technique capable of imparting beneficial compressive residual stresses, thereby improving metal parts’ fatigue resistance and crack propagation resistance. This study presents the fatigue behaviour of AISI D2 tool steel samples subjected to LSP with a power density of 15 GW/cm2 and a double laser scanning sequence. The effect of LSP on quasi-static tensile properties was also addressed. The fatigue crack propagation was suppressed in LSP-treated samples when tested at = 10 MPa. The fatigue strength of treated samples was 32.9% higher compared to untreated samples. The LSP-treated samples have shown a larger fatigue fracture surface area than the as-received (AR) sample. In addition, the tendency to form secondary cracks in the fatigue fracture paths decreased due to LSP treatment. LSP treatment can effectively improve the fatigue resistance and crack propagation behaviour of AISI D2 steel. These improvements are due to significant compressive residual stresses in a superficial layer of the material. The present study provides a reference for improving the mechanical properties of AISI D2 steel by laser shock peening.