Dynamical Projections of the Mean and Extreme Wave Climate in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea


Few studies have focused on the projected future changes in wave climate in the Chinese marginal seas. For the first time, we investigate the projected changes of the mean and extreme wave climate over the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea (BYE) during two future periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100) under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios from the WAM wave model simulations with a resolution of 0.1°. This is currently the highest-resolution wave projection dataset available for the study domain. The wind forcings for WAM are from high-resolution (0.22°) regional climate model (RCM) CCLM-MPIESM simulations. The multivariate bias-adjustment method based on the N-dimensional probability density function transform is used to correct the raw simulated significant wave height (SWH), mean wave period (MWP), and mean wave direction (MWD). The annual and seasonal mean SWH are generally projected to decrease (-0.15 to -0.01 m) for 2021–2050 and 2071–2100 under the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios, with statistical significance at a 0.1 level for most BYE in spring and for most of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea in annual and winter/autumn mean. There is a significant decrease in the spring MWP for two future periods under both the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In contrast, the annual and summer/winter 99th percentile SWH are generally projected to increase for large parts of the study domain. Results imply that the projected changes in the mean and 99th percentile extreme waves are very likely related to projected changes in local mean and extreme surface wind speeds, respectively.
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