Sustainable and green trends in using plant extracts for the synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles toward environmental and pharmaceutical advances: A review


Conventionally utilized physical and chemical routes for constructing nanoparticles are not eco-friendly. They are associated with many shortcomings like the requirement of specially designed equipment, templates, extremely high temperature, and pressure. Biosynthesis seems to be drawn unequivocal attention owing to its upsurge of applications in different fields like; energy, nutrition, pharmaceutical, and medicinal sciences. To harness the biological sources, the present review describes an environment-friendly route to generate biogenic nanoparticles from the natural plant extracts and the followed mechanisms for their synthesis, growth, and stabilization. The present review summarizes the recent trends involved in the photosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles and their effective use in controlling malaria, hepatitis, cancer, like various endemic diseases. Also, various characterization approaches, such as UV–visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, are discussed here examine the properties of as-fabricated nanoparticles. Various plant parts like leaves, stems, barks, fruit, and flowers are rich in flavonoids, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, enzymes, and alkaloids, thereby playing an essential role in reducing metal ions that generate metallic nanoparticles. Herein, the uniqueness of phytofabricated nanoparticles along with their distinctive antibacterial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, and drug delivery properties are featured. Lastly, this work highlights the various challenges and future perspectives to further synthesize biogenic metal nanoparticles toward environmental and pharmaceutical advances in the coming years.
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