AbstractMarine biodiversity is a fundamental characteristic of our planet that depends on and influences climate, water quality, and many ocean state variables. It is also at the core of ecosystem services that can make or break economic development in any region. Our purpose is to highlight the need for marine biological observations to inform science and conservation management and to support the blue economy. We provide ten recommendations, applicable now, to measure and forecast biological Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) as part of economic monitoring efforts. The UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030) provides a timely opportunity to implement these recommendations to benefit humanity and enable the USD 3 trillion global ocean economy expected by 2030.