AbstractIn this study, the texture evolutions of two Mg materials during tension are explored. In-situ X-ray synchrotron and Visco-Plastic Self-Consistent (VPSC) modeling are employed to investigate the different deformation modes between pure Mg and Mg–15Gd (wt.%) alloy. These two materials with a strong extrusion texture show large different slip/twinning activity behaviors during tensile deformation. The basal (a) slip has the highest contribution to the initial stage of plastic deformation for pure Mg. During the subsequent plastic deformation, the prismatic slip is dominant due to the strong ED // (100) fiber texture. In contrast, the deformation behavior of Mg–15Gd alloy is more complex. Twinning and basal slip are dominant at the early stage of plastic deformation, but further deformation results in the increased activation of prismatic and pyramidal slips. In comparison to pure Mg, the ratios of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) between non-basal slip and basal slip of the Mg–15Gd alloy are much lower.