AbstractChemical production has continued to in-crease and change since 2003. The potential geographic impact of the chemical industry continued to change from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, where almost 70 per cent of the industry is expected to operate by 2030, while new products are continually being devel-oped, thus adding to the mixture of chemicals to which biota in the ocean is being exposed.Different lists of hazardous substances have been identified by international organizations, although there is still no agreed single global list of substances that are of concern. The present chapter contains an assessment of the changes since the first Assessment in wa-ter and airborne inputs to the marine environ-ment from land (including groundwater), ships and offshore installations. In addition, the information in the present chapter builds upon the assessment of the list of hazardous sub-stances used in the first Assessment, namely, POPs, metals, hydrocarbons and radioactive substances. It includes new information on rare earth elements, PPCPs and airborne in-puts of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides that were not included in the first Assessment.