AbstractOrganic pollutants from ship exhaust have significant health and air quality impact in coastal areas; their profiles are also in urgent need. Studies on organic pollutants from ships are still rare, especially in China. Therefore, 21 PAHs and 29 n-alkanes in PM emitted from 15 ships with different types and fuels under different operating modes in China were tested in this study. The results showed that: (1) Identified organic matters accounted for 0.15%–23.3% of PM. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for ∑16PAHs ranged from 0.095 to 5.80 mg (kg fuel)−1, with low-engine-power fishing boats and heavy fuel oil (HFO) training ship had higher values compared with light diesel vessels. EFs for ∑n-alkanes ranged from 5.22 to 1589 mg (kg fuel)−1, with low-engine-power fishing boats had higher values compared with other vessels. (2) The dominant PAHs were medium molecular weight components of Pyr, Flua, Phe, and Chr. N-alkanes from C15 to C33 accounted for more than 97% of the total n-alkanes. (3) Ratios of typical PAHs and n-alkanes parameters in this study showed typical diagnostic characteristics of oil combustion source. Profiles and diagnostic characteristics of PAHs together with n-alkanes could provide a more precise source apportionment result in the future. (4) Besides, PAHs in PM emitted from ships inferred non-ignorable health influence.