AbstractChanges of surface air temperature (SAT) over the Indochina Peninsula (ICP) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario are projected for wet and dry seasons in the short-term (2020–2049) and long-term (2070–2099) future of the twenty-first century. A first analysis on projections of the SAT by the state-of-the-art regionally coupled atmosphere-ocean model ROM, including exchanges of momentum, heat, and water fluxes between the atmosphere (Regional Model) and ocean (Max Planck Institute Ocean Model) models, shows the following results: (i) In both seasons, the highest SAT occurs over the southern coastal area while the lowest over the northern mountains. The highest warming magnitudes are located in the northwestern part of the ICP. The regionally averaged SAT over the ICP increases by 2.61 °C in the wet season from short- to long-term future, which is slightly faster than that of 2.50 °C in the dry season. (ii) During the short-term future, largest SAT trends occur over the southeast and northwest ICP in wet and dry seasons, respectively. On regional average, the wet season is characterized by a significant warming rate of 0.22 °C decade−1, while it is non-significant with 0.11 °C decade−1 for the dry season. For the long-term future, the rapid warming is strengthened significantly over whole ICP, with trends of 0.51 °C decade−1 and 0.42 °C decade−1 in wet and dry seasons, respectively. (iii) In the long-term future, more conspicuous warming is noted, especially in the wet season, due to the increased downward longwave radiation. Higher CO2 concentrations enhancing the greenhouse effect can be attributed to the water vapor–greenhouse feedback, which, affecting atmospheric humidity and counter radiation, leads to the rising SAT.