Basics for the operationalization of the new urban climate model PALM-4U
AbstractClimate change is among the most important societal challenges of our time. The IPCC special report “Global Warming of 1.5 °C” (IPCC 2018) has shown that even a warming of 1.5 °C compared to pre-industrial levels will have a significant impact on society. Climate change-related risks and impacts are increasing steadily. Many of these risks and impacts will hit urban areas in particular, regardless of their size, location and economic and social circumstances. Key issues include rising temperatures (especially the urban heat island effect) and related issues such as heat stress and increased air pollution, longer dry periods in combination with rising water stress, extreme weather events such as heavy rains, river flooding, and, in coastal areas, sea-level rise. The combined effects of these events are already causing health problems and even death, as well as serious economic damage (Smith et al., 2014). It is expected that these challenges will become even more severe in the coming decades and will require additional efforts.