AbstractThis paper presents a comparison between the “classical” and the modified Williamson–Hall and Warren–Averabach methods applied to an analysis of the microstructure of α-titanium. The microstructural parameters of cold-rolled titanium specimens were retrieved from analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks. The high-quality XRD patterns were received at the P07 beamline (The High Energy Materials Science) at the German electron synchrotron. The dependence of the crystallite size, the inhomogeneous microstrains, the average dislocation density, the dislocation cut-off radius and some other parameters on the plastic strain were estimated. The results clearly indicate that, due to the consideration of the dislocation contrast effect, the modified models are a much better fit to the experimental data in comparison with the “classical” models. The results of hardness and corrosion resistance measurements of Ti samples can be explained based on the results obtained from the XRD analysis.