Benzo[a]pyrene in the Ambient Air in the Czech Republic: Emission Sources, Current and Long-Term Monitoring Analysis and Human Exposure
Abstract This paper provides a detailed, thorough analysis of air pollution by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the Czech Republic. The Czech residential sector is responsible for more than 98.8% of BaP, based on the national emission inventory. According to the data from 48 sites of the National Air Quality Monitoring Network, the range of annual average concentration of BaP ranges from 0.4 ng·m−3 at a rural regional station to 7.7 ng·m−3 at an industrial station. Additionally, short-term campaign measurements in small settlements have recorded high values of daily benzo[a]pyrene concentrations (0.1–13.6 ng·m−3) in winter months linked to local heating of household heating. The transboundary contribution to the annual average concentrations of BaP was estimated by the CAMx model to range from 46% to 70% over most of the country. However, the contribution of Czech sources can exceed 80% in residential heating hot spots. It is likely that the transboundary contribution to BaP concentrations was overestimated by a factor of 1.5 due to limitations of the modeling approach used. During the period of 2012–2018, 35–58% of the urban population in the Czech Republic were exposed to BaP concentrations above target. A significant decreasing trend, estimated by the Mann-Kendall test, was found for annual and winter BaP concentrations between 2008 and 2018.