Materials for Orthopedic Bioimplants: Modulating Degradation and Surface Modification Using Integrated Nanomaterials


Significant research and development in the field of biomedical implants has evoked the scope to treat a broad range of orthopedic ailments that include fracture fixation, total bone replacement, joint arthrodesis, dental screws, and others. Importantly, the success of a bioimplant depends not only upon its bulk properties, but also on its surface properties that influence its interaction with the host tissue. Various approaches of surface modification such as coating of nanomaterial have been employed to enhance antibacterial activities of a bioimplant. The modified surface facilitates directed modulation of the host cellular behavior and grafting of cell-binding peptides, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and growth factors to further improve host acceptance of a bioimplant. These strategies showed promising results in orthopedics, e.g., improved bone repair and regeneration. However, the choice of materials, especially considering their degradation behavior and surface properties, plays a key role in long-term reliability and performance of bioimplants. Metallic biomaterials have evolved largely in terms of their bulk and surface properties including nano-structuring with nanomaterials to meet the requirements of new generation orthopedic bioimplants. In this review, we have discussed metals and metal alloys commonly used for manufacturing different orthopedic bioimplants and the biotic as well as abiotic factors affecting the failure and degradation of those bioimplants. The review also highlights the currently available nanomaterial-based surface modification technologies to augment the function and performance of these metallic bioimplants in a clinical setting.
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