AbstractNature Based Solutions (NBS) are currently gaining importance in the EU policy agenda as a promising approach to mitigate and adapt to environmental and climate change. The main advantage of NBS over other adaptation strategies is their capability to deliver multiple benefits. They support the resilience of natural processes and help in reducing adaptation costs. In this paper, we address the current gaps in the literature by providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use classification scheme focussing on hydrological extreme events. The classification scheme is presented as a matrix and contains a portfolio of known NBS as well as the important criteria for their selection. Specifically, we have included disservices/ barriers, and the potential impacts of climate change on NBS. The matrix provides decision-makers with a tool that will guide them through the first phase of the complex process when choosing the most appropriative NBS for a specific challenge. In that way, we aim to support the spread of NBS in the scientific literature as well as their practical application.