Effect of iodinated contrast media on the oxygen tension in the renal cortico-medullary region of pigs


Repeated injections of iodinated contrast media (CM) can lead to a deterioration of the renal blood flow, can redistribute blood from the renal cortex to other parts of the kidney and can cause small decreases of the blood flow in cortical capillaries, a significant reduction in blood flow in peritubular capillaries and a significant reduction in blood flow in the vasa recta. Therefore, a study in pigs was designed, to show whether the repeated injection of CM boli, alone, can cause a reduction of oxygenation in the cortico-medullar renal tissue – the region with the highest oxygen demand in the kidney - of pigs. While the mean pO2-value had only decreased by 0.3 mmHg from 29.9±4.3 mmHg to 29.6±4.3 mmHg (p = 0.8799) after the tenth Iodixanol bolus, it decreased by 5.9 mmHg from 34.0±4.3 mmHg to 28.1±4.3 mmHg after the tenth Iopromide bolus (p = 0.044). This revealed a remarkable difference in the influence of these CM on the oxygen partial pressure in the kidney. Repeated applications of CM had a significant influence on the renal oxygen partial pressure. In line with earlier studies showing a redistribution of blood from the cortex to other renal areas, this study revealed that Iodixanol – in contrast to Iopromide - induced no changes in the pO2 in the cortico-medullar region which confirms that Iodixanol did not hinder the flow of blood through the renal micro-vessels. These results are in favor of a hypothesis from Brezis that a microcirculatory disorder might be the basis for the development of CI-AKI.
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