A 1-Dimensional Sympagic–Pelagic–Benthic Transport Model (SPBM): Coupled Simulation of Ice, Water Column, and Sediment Biogeochemistry, Suitable for Arctic Applications


Marine biogeochemical processes can strongly interact with processes occurring in adjacent ice and sediments. This is especially likely in areas with shallow water and frequent ice cover, both of which are common in the Arctic. Modeling tools are therefore required to simulate coupled biogeochemical systems in ice, water, and sediment domains. We developed a 1D sympagic–pelagic–benthic transport model (SPBM) which uses input from physical model simulations to describe hydrodynamics and ice growth and modules from the Framework for Aquatic Biogeochemical Models (FABM) to construct a user-defined biogeochemical model. SPBM coupled with a biogeochemical model simulates the processes of vertical diffusion, sinking/burial, and biogeochemical transformations within and between the three domains. The potential utility of SPBM is demonstrated herein with two test runs using modules from the European regional seas ecosystem model (ERSEM) and the bottom-redox model biogeochemistry (BROM-biogeochemistry). The first run simulates multiple phytoplankton functional groups inhabiting the ice and water domains, while the second simulates detailed redox biogeochemistry in the ice, water, and sediments. SPBM is a flexible tool for integrated simulation of ice, water, and sediment biogeochemistry, and as such may help in producing well-parameterized biogeochemical models for regions with strong sympagic–pelagic–benthic interactions.
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