AbstractAlloy 625 (UNS N06625) welded sheets were evaluated in the present study. Friction stir welding (FSW) was performed in a range of tool rotational speed from 1200 to 200 rpm, welding speed from 1.0 to 1.5 mm/s and constant axial force. Residual stress states were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Besides, microstructural features were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FSW application was effective in the Ni-based alloy, promoting different levels of grain refinement, microstructural characteristics, and enhanced microhardness. Results also showed that distinct process parameters led to changes in the joints and distinguishable residual stress distributions. In general, as the tool rotational speed decreased, the grain refinement increased, more homogeneous microstructures and microhardness profiles, and lower residual stresses were achieved within the stirred zones.