AbstractNon-swelling hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) network (cPnBA) is a candidate material for synthetic vascular grafts owing to its low toxicity and tailorable mechanical properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell type for accelerating endothelialization because of their superior anti-thrombosis and immune modulatory function. Further, they can differentiate into smooth muscle cells or endothelial-like cells and secret pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). MSCs are sensitive to the substrate mechanical properties, with the alteration of their major cellular behavior and functions as a response to substrate elasticity. Here, we cultured human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) on cPnBAs with different mechanical properties (cPnBA250, Young’s modulus (E) = 250 kPa; cPnBA1100, E = 1100 kPa) matching the elasticity of native arteries, and investigated their cellular response to the materials including cell attachment, proliferation, viability, apoptosis, senescence and secretion. The cPnBA allowed high cell attachment and showed negligible cytotoxicity. F-actin assembly of hADSCs decreased on cPnBA films compared to classical tissue culture plate. The difference of cPnBA elasticity did not show dramatic effects on cell attachment, morphology, cytoskeleton assembly, apoptosis and senescence. Cells on cPnBA250, with lower proliferation rate, had significantly higher VEGF secretion activity. These results demonstrated that tuning polymer elasticity to regulate human stem cells might be a potential strategy for constructing stem cell-based artificial blood vessels.