AbstractMg2FeH6 is regarded as potential hydrogen and thermochemical storage medium due to its high volumetric hydrogen (150 kg/m3) and energy (0.49 kWh/L) densities. In this work, the mechanism of formation of Mg2FeH6 under equilibrium conditions is thoroughly investigated applying volumetric measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and the combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Starting from a 2Mg:Fe stoichiometric powder ratio, thorough characterizations of samples taken at different states upon hydrogenation under equilibrium conditions confirm that the formation mechanism of Mg2FeH6 occurs from elemental Mg and Fe by columnar nucleation of the complex hydride at boundaries of the Fe seeds. The formation of MgH2 is enhanced by the presence of Fe. However, MgH2 does not take part as intermediate for the formation of Mg2FeH6 and acts as solid-solid diffusion barrier which hinders the complete formation of Mg2FeH6. This work provides novel insight about the formation mechanism of Mg2FeH6.