AbstractOligodepsipeptides (ODPs) with alternating amide and ester bonds prepared by ring-opening polymerization of morpholine-2,5-dione derivatives are promising matrices for drug delivery systems and building blocks for multifunctional biomaterials. Here, we elucidate the behavior of three telechelic ODPs and one multiblock copolymer containing ODP blocks at the air–water interface. Surprisingly, whereas the oligomers and multiblock copolymers crystallize in bulk, no crystallization is observed at the air–water interface. Furthermore, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy is used to elucidate hydrogen bonding and secondary structures in ODP monolayers. The results will direct the development of the next ODP-based biomaterial generation with tailored properties for highly sophisticated applications.