AbstractRemaining uremic toxins in the blood of chronic renal failure patients represent one central challenge in hemodialysis therapies. Highly porous poly(ether imide) (PEI) microparticles have been recently introduced as candidate absorber materials, which show a high absorption capacity for uremic toxins and allow hydrophilic surface modification suitable for minimization of serum protein absorption. In this work, the effects of extracts prepared from PEI microparticles modified by nucleophilic reaction with low molecular weight polyethylene imine (Pei) or potassium hydroxide (KOH), on human monocytic (THP-1) cells are studied. The obtained results suggested that the extracts of Pei and KOH modified PEI absorbers have no negative effect on THP-1 cell viability and do not initiate the critical differentiation towards macrophages. The extracts did not enhance transcript or protein levels of investigated proinflammatory markers in THP-1 cells, namely, TNFμ, MCP1, IL6 and IL8. Based on these findings such modified PEI microparticles should be qualified for further pre-clinical evaluation i.e. in an in vivo animal experiment.