AbstractNew data from barcode index numbers (BINs) and 28S rRNA gene sequences confirm a cryptic species pair in Lyrodus pedicellatus from the eastern Mediterranean and European Atlantic coasts. Therefore, it is paramount to associate the new species to a scientific name for a reliable reference system of biological information. To this end, we describe Lyrodus mersinensis sp. nov., another cryptic species in the L. pedicellatus complex, and redescribe the `true´ L. pedicellatus. Both the description and redescription are based on molecular diagnostic characters obtained from sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 28S rRNA genes. The 18S rRNA gene sequences did not yield diagnostic characters to distinguish these species. A morphological diagnosis of pedicellatus-like Lyrodus species is also provided.