AbstractThe administration of iodinated contrast media (CM) can cause microcirculatory disorder leading to acute renal dysfunction. In a prospective, randomized investigation two CM (Iodixanol vs Iopromide) were compared in 16 pigs. Each animal received 10 intra-aortal injections (5 ml Iodixanol or 4.32 ml Iopromide). Microcirculation was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) directly on the kidney surface using time-to-peak (TTP) and blood-volume-analysis. Macroscopic observations were documented. Post mortem residual CM distribution in the kidneys was detected using X-ray. TTP was significantly prolonged over the descending vasa recta of the Iopromide group. This coincided with a visible marble-like pattern on the kidney surface occurring in 30 out of 80 Iopromide-injections but in 4 out of 80 Iodixanol-injections (p = 0.007). The blood volume over the entire kidney did not change after Iodixanol-application, but decreased by about 6.1% after Iopromide-application. The regional blood volume in the renal cortex showed a tendency to decrease by about 13.5% (p = 0.094) after Iodixanol-application, and clearly decreased by about 31.7% (p = 0.022) after Iopromide-application. The study revealed a consistent influence of repeated injections of two different CM on the kidney perfusion using three different imaging methods (CEUS analysis, macroscopic observation and X-ray analysis).