AbstractPolymeric matrices mimicking multiple functions of the ECM are expected to enable a material induced regeneration of tissues. Here, we investigated the adipogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) in a 3D architectured gelatin based hydrogel (ArcGel) prepared from gelatin and L-lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester (LDI) in an one-step process, in which the formation of an open porous morphology and the chemical network formation were integrated. The ArcGel was designed to support adipose tissue regeneration with its 3D porous structure, high cell biocompatibility, and mechanical properties compatible with human subcutaneous adipose tissue. The ArcGel could support initial cell adhesion and survival of hADSCs. Under static culture condition, the cells could migrate into the inner part of the scaffold with a depth of 840±120 μm after 4 days, and distributed in the whole scaffold (2 mm in thickness) within 14 days. The cells proliferated in the scaffold and the fold increase of cell number after 7 days of culture was 2.55±0.08. The apoptotic rate of hADSCs in the scaffold was similar to that of cells maintained on tissue culture plates. When cultured in adipogenic induction medium, the hADSCs in the scaffold differentiated into adipocytes with a high efficiency (93±1%). Conclusively, this gelatin based 3D scaffold presented high cell compatibility for hADSC cultivation and differentiation, which could serve as a potential implant material in clinical applications for adipose tissue reparation and regeneration.