AbstractDue to the lack of a living functional layer of endothelial cells( ECs) on the surface of artificial vascular scaffolds, especially small-diameter artificial vascular scaffolds, usually encounter long-term low patency and restenosis, limiting their clinical application. Nevertheless, it has been proved that reendothelialization of artificial vascular scaffolds can be aquired rapidly via gene transfection tow ards endothelial cells,which is mediated by gene complexes. At present,gene carriers modified with targeting peptides provide a useful approach to promote transfection efficiency as well as decrease cytotoxicity. We introduce the desired genes and gene carriers applied in gene transfection detailedly. Based on polycationic gene carriers,the recent developments of gene carriers with targeting peptides for promoting the proliferation of ECs and endothelialization are highlighted in this review. Combined with the progress of small diameter artificial blood vessels,some perspectives on accomplishing rapid endothelialization via gene transfection are also presented.