AbstractHydrogel forming polysaccharides, such as the seaweed derived agarose, are well suited for wound dressing applications as they have excellent cell and soft tissue compatibility. For wound dressings, fibrous structure is desirable as the high surface area can favor adsorption of wound exudate and promote drug delivery. Although electrospinning offers a straightforward means to produce nonwoven fibrous polymeric structures, processing agarose and its derivatives into fibers through electrospinning is challenging as it has limited solubility in solvents other than water. In this study we describe the processing of carboxylated agarose (CA) fibers with antibacterial properties by electrospinning from a solution of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]+Cl–) possessing antimicrobial properties. The extent of carboxylation was found to impact fiber diameter, mesh elastic modulus, fiber swelling, and the loading and release of IL. IL-bearing CA fibers inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria commonly found in wound exudate. In sum, nonwoven CA fibers processed from IL are promising as biomaterials for wound dressing applications.