AbstractArtificial vascular scaffolds have been developed and used clinically for many years, but the lack of a living functional layer of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) remains a significant challenge, especially for small diameter artificial blood vessels. Endothelialization of artificial vascular scaffolds has been proved as one of the most potential approaches to improve their hemocompatibility and long-term patency. A variety of non-viral gene carriers have been investigated to mediate the transfection and proliferation of HUVECs. In this mini-review, we will summarize the recent development of the non-viral gene carriers for transfecting HUVECs. The gene transfection with targeting ligand immobilized carriers is a promising approach to enhance endothelialization of artificial vascular scaffolds.