Friction surfacing of Ti–6Al–4V: Process characteristics and deposition behaviour at various rotational speeds


By the process of friction surfacing, coatings are generated from metallic materials at temperatures below their melting range. The high degree of deformation while depositing leads to grain refinement in the microstructure, which has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the layer. The applicability of the process has been described for a large number of materials. The deposition of Ti–6Al–4V has been reported in one publication but was not systematically studied. Therefore, the main aims of the present work are to define the process parameter fields for the deposition of Ti–6Al–4V leading to flash and defect free coatings and associate them with geometric features of the deposited layer. This investigation has shown that Ti–6Al–4V coatings can be effectively deposited onto a Ti–6Al–4V substrate by friction surfacing. A wide range of process parameters was established in which coatings of high quality have been obtained. The consumption rate control has been implemented as an efficient mode for the deposition of Ti–6Al–4V coatings. Temperature measurements at the coating interface have been accomplished showing that the coating material has been deformed in the β-phase. Furthermore, the homogeneity of the coating surface has been established to be a function of the rotational speed. The coatings exhibited a defect-free bond at the interface with the substrate. Two process parameter ranges with respect to the flash formation have been established. One of them enables flash-free coatings and the other generates coatings with flash formation on the retreating side, which can be controlled by the rotational and deposition speeds. Moreover, an increase in the rotational speed has been shown to lead to an increase in the coating thickness and width as well as an increase in the deposition efficiency up to 39 %.
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