AbstractThe effects of friction spot joining process parameters on the bonding area and mechanical performance
of single lap joints were investigated using full-factorial design of experiments and analysis of variance.
On one hand, the main process parameters with significant influence on the bonding area were joining
pressure, tool rotational speed and joining time. On the other hand, tool rotational speed and joining
pressure displayed the highest influence on the lap shear strength of the joints followed by tool plunge
depth, whereas the joining time was not statistically significant. The interaction between the rotational
speed and joining time was the only interaction with a significant effect on the mechanical performance.
Joints with ultimate lap shear forces varying between 1698 ± 92 N and 2310 ± 155 N were obtained. It
was observed that generally a larger bonding area as a result of higher heat input leads to an increased
mechanical performance of the joints. The generated regression model by the analysis of variance was
used to identify an optimized set of parameters for increasing the lap shear strength of the joints to
2280 ± 88 N. Furthermore, the process temperature was monitored, which varied in the range of