AbstractResidual stresses in Mg-xCa (0.5 wt. % and 1.0 wt. %) cast alloys were investigated by neutron diffraction using a mould with two preheating temperatures of 250 °C and 450 °C. Results show that the increase of Ca content decreases the residual stress in the hot sprue region. These results are quite in agreement with those obtained by the measurement of hot tearing susceptibility, which shows the increment in Ca content improves the castability of Mg-Ca alloys.