AbstractThe structure of nanodiamond water dispersions prepared under different conditions was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering at the scale of 1 to 100 nm. The study of diluted dispersions was regarded as of paramount importance. Similarly to previous studies, strong clustering of particles was revealed in the solutions. The typical size of clusters (40 nm and above) depends on the modification of the dispersions. A common property can be distinguished for different systems: the fractal dimension of the clusters is in the range of 2.3–2.4, which indicates that there is a common clustering mechanism in such systems. Using contrast variation, the existence of a nondiamond component in the colloidal particles of the dispersions was confirmed; it correlates with the presence of a graphene shell on crystallite surfaces.