AbstractA major clinical problem of high relevance in the cardiovascular field is late stent thrombosis after implantation of drug eluting stents (DES). Clinical widely used DES currently utilize durable polymer coatings, which can induce persistent arterial wall inflammation and delayed vascular healing resulting in an impaired endothelialization. In this study we explored the interaction of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with electrospun scaffolds prepared from resorbable polyetheresterurethane (PDC) and poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO), as well as polyetherimide (PEI), which can be surface modified, in comparison to poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF) as reference material, which is established as coating material of DES in clinical applications. Our results show that adhesion could be improved for HUVEC on PDC, PPDO and PEI compared to PVDF, whereas almost no SMC attached to the scaffolds indicating a cell-specific response of HUVEC towards the different fibrous structures. Proliferation and apoptosis results revealed that PPDO and PEI have no significant negative influence on vitality and cell cycle behaviour compared to PVDF. Hence, they represent promising candidates for temporary blood vessel support that induce HUVEC attachment and prevent SMC proliferation.