Temporal Trends and Pattern of Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) Eggs from Norway, 1986−2009


Temporal trends of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) were examined in tawny owl (Strix aluco) eggs collected in Central Norway over a period of 24 years (1986−2009). Concentrations of 12 PFCs, including C6−C8, C10 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), and C8−C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), were measured, whereas saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylates and shorter chain PFSAs and PFCAs were not detected. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant compound (geometric mean 10.1 ng/g wet weight (ww)), followed by perfluorotridecanoate (PFTriDA) (0.36 ng/g ww) and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) (0.19 ng/g ww). Significant decreasing concentrations were found for PFOS with an annual decrease of 1.6% (1986−2009), while, conversely, the C10−C13 PFCA concentrations increase significantly with an annual increase of 4.2−12% (1986−2009). Consequently, the contribution of PFOS to the ∑PFCs decreased, whereas the contribution of the ∑PFCAs increased over the time. Toxicological implications for tawny owls are limited, but the maximal PFOS concentration found in this stu0dy is about 20 times lower than the predicted avian no effect concentration (PNEC) which suggest adverse effects caused by PFOS are unlikely. However, tawny owls are exposed to a mixture of various PFCs, and PFCA concentrations still increase.
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