Biomimetic techniques in tissue engineering bones and orthopaedics implants


BACKGROUND: Although the application of tissue engineering bones to repair bone defects of cranio-maxillofacial has been reported, there are no applications for repairing bone defects of loaded four limbs for lack of mechanical strength in early period of implanting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biomimetic mechanics design of new type of scaffolds for loaded tissue engineering bones, the biomimetic morphological design of porous pure magnesium scaffolds, and biomimetic bone-like coating technology for porous pure magnesium bone-like scaffolds. The biomimetic techniques progress of other candidates for scaffolds of loaded tissue engineering bones and biomimetic coating technology for metallic surgery implants were also given. RETRIEVAL STRATEGY: A computer-based search for the literatures concerning biomimetic materials was undertaken in EI databases from 1899 to 2007, with the aid of ELSERVIER, Springer, Wanfang foreign language databases and CHKI Chinese databases. The English keywords were “biomimetic materials”, and the Chinese ones were “biomimetics”. Literatures concerning biomimetics, biomimetic mechanics, biomimetic materials and biomimetic techniques were collected. LITERATURE EVALUATION: Among 3 501 obtained indexes, 35 concerning inclusion criteria were selected for summarized. One paper concerning bionics or biomimetics; one paper, biomechanics; one paper, biomimetic materials for tissue engineering; three papers, new scaffolds for loaded tissue engineering bones; twelve papers, biomimetic coating techniques for medical metal materials; one paper, biomimetic coating techniques for medical bio-ceramics; four papers, biomimetic coating techniques for medical bio-polymers; six papers, self-assembly between organic nano-bio-macromolecules and inorganic nano-bio-compounds; two papers, bulk modification of biomaterials. DATA SYNTHESIS: New type of porous pure magnesium scaffolds with bone-like biomimetic coating is the best candidate of pre-research for clinical application to solve the too-low mechanical strength in early period of implanting loaded tissue engineering bones. Porous pure titanium scaffolds with biomimetic coating may be the else selection of above mentioned research. The low compression strength of porous biphasic bio-ceramics may be insufficient to solve the problems, and biomimetic bulk modification may be promising. Porous biopolymer scaffolds can improve their mechanical properties by biomimetic bulk modification, but improvement is a little. CONCLUSION: Insufficiency of mechanical strength in early period of implanting loaded tissue engineering bones has not yet been solved. Biometals for orthopaedics implants, porous biometals, bioceramics and biopolymers for tissue engineering bones can be surface-modified by biomimetic coating techniques.
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