Polyfluorinated Compounds in Residential and Nonresidential Indoor Air


Indoor air concentrations of fifteen volatile per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) (five fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), three fluorotelomer acrylates (FTAs), three perfluorinated sulfonamido ethanols (FASEs), and three perfluorinated sulfonamides (FASAs)) were determined in residential and nonresidential indoor air environments. Air samples were taken with passive samplers, consisting of XAD-4 impregnated polyurethane foam (PUF) disks in steel housings. Impregnated PUF disks were extracted by fluidized bed extraction (FBE) using methyl-tert-butyl ether/acetone (1:1) and analyzed by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry. Total PFC indoor air concentrations ranged from 8.2 to 458 ng m−3. Individual PFC concentrations were between 42 pg m−3 (6:2 FTA) and 209 ng m−3 (8:2 FTOH). Concentrations of total FTOHs, FTAs, and FASAs + FASEs ranged from 0.2 to 152 ng m−3 (FTAs), from 3.3 to 307 ng m−3 (FTOHs), and from 4.4 to 148 ng m−3 (FASAs + FASEs). Most elevated individual, group, and total PFC concentrations were detected in two stores selling outdoor equipment, one furniture shop, and one carpet shop. Indoor air concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher than published outdoor air concentrations indicating indoor air environments as sources for PFCs to the atmosphere. Concentrations were used to estimate human exposure to investigated PFCs.
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