Spatial distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in dab (Limanda limanda) bile fluids from Iceland and the North Sea


The spatial distribution of polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) was investigated in dab (Limanda limanda) bile fluids collected from Iceland and the North Sea. Concentrations of various PFCs, including perfluorinated sulfonates (C4–C6, C8 PFSAs), perfluorinated carboxylic acids (C9–C14 PFCAs) and n-methyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (MeFOSE), were quantified. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant compound with highest concentrations along the Danish and German coast (mean 9.36 ng/g wet weight (ww)). Significantly lower PFOS concentrations were found at the other sampling stations in the North Sea and Iceland (p < 0.01, t-test). Conversely, the spatial distribution of the PFCAs in Iceland and the North Sea was more uniform. The most abundant PFCA was perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), while the mean concentration decreased with increasing chain length from 4.7 ng/g ww for PFNA to 0.04 ng/g ww for perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA). Overall, the different spatial distribution of PFCs indicates different origin of sources and different transportation mechanism.
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