Separation and analysis of different types of nematocysts from Cyanea capillata (L.) medusae


Medusae play an important role in marine ecosystems, as competitors of many invertebrate and fish species. Additionally, jellyfish stings can cause severe pain, inflammation of the affected skin, and allergic reactions in human. Climate and environmental changes are likely to affect the medusae, but it is not yet clear whether these will affect their distribution, physiology, and their toxicity. Very little is known about the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the proliferation and the distribution of medusan nematocysts. In this study, we compared three types of nematocysts (euryteles and A- and O-isorhizas) and venoms of Cyanea capillata medusae (Scyphozoa) obtained from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, which have different salinity and temperature ranges. Different types of nematocysts were separated by laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), and the proteinaceous contents of the nematocysts were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Medusae from the brackish Baltic Sea possessed more euryteles than those from the North Sea. The O-isorhizas and A-isorhizas were smaller in the Baltic Sea sample compared to the North Sea samples and the length-to-width ratios were larger in the Baltic Sea sample. Moreover, the pattern of proteins (potential toxins) obtained from the separated nematocysts showed differences among samples and nematocyst types, but no clear pattern was observable. This study displays the novel LMPC/MALDI-TOF MS approach as a useful tool to investigate the function and venom of cnidarian nematocysts types.
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