CMAQ simulations of the benzo(a)pyrene distribution over Europe for 2000 and 2001
AbstractIn order to investigate benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) concentrations in ambient air in Europe and the respective deposition fields an expanded version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modelling system has been used to simulate these fields for the years 2000 and 2001. Significant differences exist between different regions in Europe and between winter and summer concentrations. Modelled B(a)P concentrations are highest in Central Europe, South Ukraine and around Moscow. Wet deposition shows mainly the same regional distribution as the concentrations. Simulated concentrations and depositions are compared to measurements at selected sites of the EMEP network and of the German Federal Environmental Agencies. The measurements are on average underestimated by 50%. The temporal evolution and the regional distribution of B(a)P are captured by the model. In the approach presented here, particle bound B(a)P undergoes degradation by reactions with ozone. In order to assess the importance of the degradation process the results are compared to a model run where no degradation of particle bound B(a)P is considered. It was found that the inclusion of heterogeneous reactions of B(a)P with ozone results in a reduction of the modelled air concentration by approx. a factor of 5.