AbstractNanofibres of poly(amideimide) (PAI) were prepared by electrospinning from solutions of 11 wt% PAI in dimethylformamide. Addition of small amounts of citric acid to the spinning solution improved the fibre size and fibre uniformity. Catalytic activation of the electrospun nanofibres was performed by coating the fibres with an organic solution of palladium diacetate containing citric acid onto the fibres and subsequent thermally induced conversion to nanosized palladium clusters. The catalyst was durably fixed on the fibres by this procedure. The presence of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles was confirmed by R-ray-diffractometry. These fibres were applied in the hydrogenation of methyl-cis-9-octadecenoate as a model reaction. The palladium-doped nanofibres showed an almost seven times higher hydrogenation rate than a commercial palladium catalyst supported on alumina.