AbstractThis special issue is devoted to the discussion of spatial and temporal variability of the Mediterranean
Sea general circulation. Spatial variability is addressed at basin, sub-basin and local scales. It is mostly associated with the interaction of the slope currents and their instabilities with the diﬀerent water masses, but
also with topographic features such as channels, straits or canyons. Observations and numerical model simulations have allowed quantiﬁcation of exchanges between sub-basins and a better understanding of processes governing this general circulation. The temporal variability has been also intensively studied
(using observational data and model results) and new evidence for signiﬁcant inter-annual variability likely related to remote forcing eﬀects such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has been found.